Research Papers: Materials and Fabrication

Design of CaO–SiO2–CaF2 and CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 Based Submerged Arc Fluxes for Series of Bead on Plate Pipeline Steel Welds—Effect on Carbon and Manganese Content, Grain Size and Microhardness

[+] Author and Article Information
Lochan Sharma

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342037, India
e-mail: sharma.11@iitj.ac.in

Rahul Chhibber

Mechanical Engineering Department,
Indian Institute of Technology,
Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342037, India
e-mail: rahul_chhibber@iitj.ac.in

Contributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 11, 2018; final manuscript received March 20, 2019; published online April 11, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Bostjan Bezensek.

J. Pressure Vessel Technol 141(3), 031403 (Apr 11, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: PVT-18-1153; doi: 10.1115/1.4043298 History: Received August 11, 2018; Revised March 20, 2019

Submerged arc welding is mainly used to weld high thickness steel plates in various applications such as offshore oil drilling platforms, bridges, building construction, and pressure vessels. Suitable flux composition and welding parameters play an important role in determining the good bead quality, which further affects the mechanical properties of welded joint. Agglomerated fluxes were formulated based on CaO–SiO2–CaF2 and CaO–SiO2–Al2O3 flux system using constrained mixture design and extreme vertices design approach. The chemical compositions of the bead on plate have been studied using formulated fluxes. Twenty one beads on plate experiments were conducted at constant current, voltage, and welding speed using submerged arc welding process. In the present study, chemical composition, grain size, and microhardness properties of series of bead on plate weld deposits (for API 5 L X70 grade pipe line) were optimized by using multiobjective optimization approach.

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Fig. 1

Phase diagrams of (a) SiO2–CaO–CaF2 and (b) SiO2–CaO–Al2O3 system [6,10]

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Fig. 2

Three-dimensional diagram [11]

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Fig. 3

Macro examination of bead profile at 4× magnification using stereo microscope: (a) bead profile for flux 12 and (b) bead profile for flux 17

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Fig. 4

(a) Series of bead on plate weld deposits performed on API X70 plate (size 290 × 290 × 22 mm3) using submerged arc welding machine, (b) chemical analysis of bead performed using atomic absorption spectrometer (e.g., for bead 12) at midlength, and (c) microhardness measurements at midlength of weld bead deposit

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Fig. 5

Effect of flux basicity index on average grain size during series of bead on plate weld deposits. Note: BI = ∑ Basic oxides/∑ Acidic oxides.

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Fig. 6

(a) Effect of basicity index on resulting average grain size for different flux compositions and (b) variation of average grain size with basicity index at cross section of bead for different flux compositions (e.g., for fluxes 2, 3, 7, 13, 17, and 19)

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Fig. 7

Predicted versus actual values for chemical composition of series of bead on plate weld deposits, grain size, and microhardness properties (a) C, (b) Mn, (c) GS, and (d) MH

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Fig. 8

Microstructure examination for series of bead on plate weld deposit specimens at 200× magnification: (a) for bead 13 and (b) for bead 17

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Fig. 9

Contour surface plots for chemical composition of series of bead on plate weld deposits properties: (a) C, (b) Mn, (c) GS, and (d) MH



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